Hello everyone, and welcome to the “Friends of Go Go Class.” Today we will continue our talk on Life and Death. In our last lesson we talked about invading the 3-3 point. We’ll continue today. This shape resulting from the 3-3 point invasion is commonly seen. The shape occurs after the kosumi attachment here. So after Black kicks and White extends, White can invade the 3-3 point. When someone invades the corner, you need to respond. We’ll learn about that today. There are many of you who don’t know which move is best under different circumstances. You see this two space extension in strong players’ games. For our purposes, this stone is here. Now, White invades the corner. After the invasion, Black has 3 ways to respond. One is to descend. One is to play here and make an empty triangle. The other is to make territory in this area. We’ll talk about each one individually. The most straightforward move is this move. When you play this move, you just want to guard the territory here. If White gains something up here, then no problem. White hanes to connect under. There are many people who think that White has gained a lot with this hane. But there are many occasions where Black picks this move. If Black can make more territory by playing this move than what’s lost in the corner, then he’ll try it. In that case he would clearly go for territory. When White hanes, Black has two ways to respond. One is to hane, the other is to play here. If you hane, White ataris here. You need to pay attention at this point. Black cannot connect here. If he does, White will capture here. Black has lost a lot of territory. Black can’t hane here either. White will play this. When you play here, he could just take here or at the bottom. Black has given up a lot of territory this way too. The correct way to play for Black is to atari here. Black isn’t worried about White’s descent here. When Black connects, White cannot protect both of these points at the same time. So, White can only take. Black got pushed back by White and White gains this territory over here. Black hung on to his territory over here. This is one way to play. There way be cases where Black feels this stone is too important to just give to White. he’ll play here. White crawls and then Black captures. This is one variation. White has a bit more territory than the variation I just showed you. Black’s territory is a bit smaller. This is why you need to choose your response based on the situation at hand. If you play this you have a plan in mind. You played this so that you would have moves later to attack White. White also has his choice of how to play. You don’t have to necessarily crawl under here. White could play the tiger’s mouth, if this area is important. Let’s say it’s like this. Now I think White cannot play here. After this sequence, White needs to jump here. Now Black has this peep. White’s shape is ugly. White is not alive and Black is attacking him. White can choose to play the tiger’s mouth here. After that, White can descend. This move creates eyespace, which is useful. There is also a lot of territory. Black blocks. White doesn’t play here, he should jump out a bit further, here. Jump to here. Now this stone is doing its job. Every move we play creates a flexible shape. These are two possible choices for Black. There’s also this. Black could also play here too. Why does Black not play here, but rather here? Let’s talk about the aim of this move. Black has a stone here. Black wants to attack this White group. The two space extension can still be attacked by Black. If you play like this, and then you let this stone here get captured… White becomes a lot stronger than the shape I just showed you. This group will be difficult to attack. Black is not satisfied with this. He wants to use his thickness, to attack this way, and then benefit. If that’s the case, he needs to descend. He isn’t emphasizing the territory in the corner. He’ll let you live over here. Then I’ll take sente to attack these stones. Right now White will….well this corner needs to live. You don’t want Black to cleanly capture your stone. You lost a lot with those two moves. That’s why you need to continue to play here. Peep here. You connect here. White will break through your shape if you let him get this point. After you connect, if White plays here. Black pushes through. If Black hanes, White can play in the corner with the tiger’s mouth. If Black descends, White plays another tiger’s mouth. White is alive. White can hane here if he wants to come to the outside rather than be in the corner. Black cuts, White connects. Black takes this stone. White ataris, Black connects, White takes this point. White is already alive. Black’s wall is very thick. It’ll be very useful for when we want to attack these White stones. When White invaded the 3,3 point, he wasn’t afraid of Black attacking these stones. If you don’t want Black to attack these stones… We’ll see in a moment, this invasion is overplay. In this instance, you need to first think about how to make yourself stronger, THEN think about how to invade the corner. If you defend out here and then invade the corner, Black isn’t going to play the descent. This is one way to play. White can play here. The kosumi. Like this. These stones are alive. This is one way to live. So here, after this, Black can jump here and then attack White’s group. There are times where Black plays here. When Black plays this and White carves out all the territory here. That might be painful. You also may not have a good move to attack the outside. You also might not want to play here, have White hane, and then gain points in sente. If Black thinks that play either of these moves allows White to benefit any way he wants… Then play here. The aim of this move is to separate these two groups. The aim is that when White plays in the corner to live, he’ll make Black even thicker. That way in the future, Black will be able to attack these two stones and White will not have such an easy time in the corner. Under normal circumstances, White can play elsewhere. Based on the overall situation on the board, White has many moves, like living or invading here. If you play the kosumi, then you are alive. Black jumps to prevent White from coming into Black’s territory. White hanes, Black plays here. White plays the tiger’s mouth here. Black hanes, White connects, and right now these stones are alive. White can block here. If you come under I’ll follow and then there is a wedge. Black’s shape on the outside is thin. If Black’s shape on the outside is thick, White cannot connect, White can only play the ko. This ko is heavy for both players. Once White captures then Black has lost a lot. This is one way for White to live. So now I think we understand this shape when White invades the 3,3 point. Now we’ll go over a shape that is known in Chinese as “Jin Gui.” (Closet Shape) The closet shape is a commonly seen shape. There are many amateur players, and even professional players, who are not entirely familiar with it and make mistakes. This is a commonly seen “Closet Shape”. In the word “Jin Gui” the Jin is the character for Gold and the Gui is the same Gui as in the word for cabinet. There are many variations. It’s called the closet shape because you can fit so much stuff (variations) inside. Many variations. If White plays here what does Black play? Black descends. Let me think. What if I play here? I can connect out like this or capture this stone. If I get the stone then it will be one eye vs. no eye and White will win. So that move doesn’t work. Let’s say you descend. Now I play here. This is the bent five shape. This is dead. All the liberties outside have been taken. Even without this, is this group dead or alive? It’s dead. You can’t even make it a ko. This group is dead. Let’s look at it again. What if this stone is here? Are these stones dead or alive? Now that this stone is here that means that there are different variations now. White still plays here. What do you think? Is it dead or alive? Let’s read. Black needs to play this. What does White play? White plays here, then Black descends. What about White? White descends. With this move, it looks like Black is dead. Black can’t play this. Black has to attach underneath here. Attaching here is different than when Black attached in the shape I showed you before. If you play out the same sequence… If White descends, then Black will as well. Now this is seki. The result is completely different with this stone here. How can White kill Black? Hane. I atari. You take. Take, and then, play this. So this looks like ko. White has no eye. In the future, if Black lives, then White has lost a lot. Does White have another way to make a ko? If this stone is here, then when White peeps and Black attaches underneath, the best White can get is a ko. The hane here will be a ko. It’s very easy for Black to make a mistake. If Black plays here… What does White play? If Black plays here then he’s dead. White ataris, Black takes. White won’t play here. This is a ko. White plays here. Black has to play here. Now White ataris. So is Black dead? So when White hanes what does Black have to do? That doesn’t work either. White plays here. Yuan Yuan wants to give it a try. Please have a seat Jiao Lang. Yuan Yuan, where should you play? There? What if he plays here? You play here? Right? White plays here, then Black can throw in. Now Black has this stone here. Now what is the difference? Is it the same as before? Does White play here to kill Black? We’ll play it out. If White plays here, what must Black play? If White wants to kill Black, he plays here first. He has no choice. If this stone is here, does Black have any chance to live? Do you feel you can handle this with this stone here? Can Black live? He can? Where to play? Attach underneath? I think White will play here. If White plays here what does Black play. Black comes under. Now White descends. Now what does Black play? Now White throws in. Black takes. White ataris. This is the bent five shape. Black is dead. So Black’s attachment really doesn’t use this stone here. Even if you play it you die. Does Black have any other way to live? So let’s go over it again. Without this stone, Black plays here, then White plays here, then you die. Now if Black plays here White threatens to come under. So the job of this stone is to prevent White from threatening to come under. But why can’t we use this stone? Black has it. Let’s think about it again. White has no way to force Black to respond in this area. If you try then Black already has him blocked off. This one. White plays here, and Black has already cut White. Now Black lives. At the very least, there’s hope. Where does Black play? Where? Correct. Hane. If White hanes’ here, can’t Black play here? If White plays here then Black connects, and you can live with a ko. What if Black plays here. Will that work? It won’t. Why won’t it work? I prevent the connection. Is this shape over here useful? Descend there? I come in. This tests White’s response. Throw in. If I take. Correct. This is a 3 space shape that’s dead. Black is dead like this. Let’s go back to the beginning. Let’s say you hane on this side. Now play here. This stone prevents White from connecting out. If the hane is here, then we play this. That’s because there’s no stone on this spot. If there is a hane, then this shape is decided by a ko. Please sit. Let’s look at another shape. White looks like he has a lot of territory. This group is not alive, in fact. How should Black play? What to play here? How should Black play? Yuan yuan. The first move is to peep here. When you see this type of shape, your first instinct should be to play on the 2,2 point. This is the vital point of the shape. Looking at the outside here, when you see this shape, you fear that your opponent will peep here. If you’re trying to kill this group, then this move is effective. What if White plays here? What does Black do? We have to continue playing after finding the first move. Where does Black play? You have to think about what White will do after the first move. How does Black respond to White’s move? This is all depends on our reading power. When you play, no matter what stage of the game you’re in, whether it be the opening, the middle game, or life and death in the corner.. …you need to know what to play after your opponent plays a move. So when you play this move, you need to think about what happens if he plays this move, or from this side. How are you going to respond to these moves? How should Black respond? Hane? Then this.. White hanes too. What about Black? Isn’t this the vital point? It’s the vital point. But if you play there White will play here. What happens next? What does Black do now? Black bends. Black bends, then White blocks. What does Black do? Does Black play here? White plays here, and now it’s a ko. This is a ko. Good. Please sit. Black can also play here first and the result will be the same. White hanes. Black plays here. Then, White connects. Black hanes. The hane here is crucial. But now playing here doesn’t work. These three stones are captured, and what’s more, when Black hanes and White blocks, White can come back and play here. This doesn’t work. Black can make a ko. The way to make the ko is to hane here. White needs to make an eye here, because just taking these three stones is a dead shape. After White plays here, now where does Black play? Jiao Lang. Where does Black play? Correct. Black’s hane is the vital point to kill White. White turns. When White plays here, Black needs to pay attention. What does he play? Correct. You can’t atari here. White takes, Black plays here. Can you still kill White? You can’t. This is double ko. You must play here. Now you play the ko to kill White. Thank you, have a seat. We looked at this move. Let’s switch it up. White plays here. Jiao Lang, what does Black play? Kill White. Correct. You must play this. If White gets to play here then you can’t kill White. You must play here. White needs to hane, it’s a must. If White plays here then Black descends. That would be bad. You must hane. Now what does Black do? Black descends. White must connect. What now? Correct. Play there. White must make an eye. Here. If you don’t play there, then it’s a multi step ko. Black would need to spend two moves to kill White. Let’s go back. When you see a big point like this… It doesn’t matter if White plays here or here, the result is the same: a ko. What happens when I descend? Can I afford to connect? I have to because if I make an eye then White is cut into two groups and I won’t have enough liberties. You must connect. Now I hane. Now how can White make a ko? He can’t, can he? This situation is totally different now that I have a stone here. Now I still play this. However this shape is dead now. You hane after White connects. Please have a seat. We should really be experts on this shape now. This group really did look alive in the beginning. I hope that everyone has gained some understanding about this shape. I hope that you look out for it in your games. That is the end of today’s lesson. See you next time.